Glucosamine Chondroitin Complex
The body manufactures glucosamine, a simple molecule composed of glucose and an amine (nitrogen and two molecules of hydrogen). Glucosamine is an important building block needed by the body to manufacture specialised molecules called glycosaminoglycans, found in cartilage. Glucosamine also promotes the incorporation of sulphur into cartilage. Glucosamine is almost exclusively researched and used for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA).
Detailed human studies on the absorption, distribution, and elimination of orally administered glucosamine sulphate show an absorption rate as high as 98%. Once absorbed, it is taken up by the joint tissues, where it is incorporated into the connective tissue matrix of cartilage, ligaments, and tendons.
Sulphur is an essential nutrient for joint tissue, with research from the 1930s showing that arthritic individuals are commonly deficient in this mineral. The restoration of sulphur levels in these patients has been shown to bring about significant benefit.
Viridian uses glucosamine sulphate 2KCL which stands for 2 x molecules of Potassium (K) chloride (Cl), this is the preferred form rather than sodium chloride - thus eliminating any potential hypertensive effect.
- OSTEOARTHRITIS (OA) - Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease affecting mainly the weight-bearing joints and joints of the hands. Many studies have shown that glucosamine sulphate produces much better results than NSAIDs and placebos in relieving the pain and inflammation of OA. The advantage of glucosamine is that it gets to the root of the problem by reducing pain and helping the body heal and repair damaged joints. Symptomatic relief can take up to 12 weeks to become apparent.
- SPORTS INJURIES - Recent research reviewing the effects of glucosamine and knee pain, due to cartilage damage, showed that glucosamine supplementation can provide some degree of pain relief and improved function in those taking 2000mg daily for 12 weeks.
- ANTI-INFLAMMATORY - Recent research has demonstrated that glucosamine sulphate inhibits a number of inflammatory markers known to be involved in OA, these include cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX-2), PGE2, and NFkappaB. Thus glucosamine is being noted for its role as a symptom- and structure-modifying supplement in the treatment of OA.
Chondroitin sulphate consists of repeating chains of molecules called glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and is a major constituent of cartilage, providing structure, holding water and nutrients, and allowing other molecules to move through cartilage-an important property, as there is no blood supply to cartilage.
- OSTEOARTHRITIS - In degenerative joint disease, such as osteoarthritis, there is a loss of chondroitin sulphate as the cartilage erodes. Research indicates that chondroitin sulphate may promote healing of bone, which is consistent with the fact that the majority of glycosaminoglycans found in bone consist of chondroitin sulphate. Chondroitin sulphate has been shown, in numerous double-blind trials, to relieve symptoms and possibly slow the progression of, or reverse, osteoarthritis.
- VASCULAR SUPPORT - Glucosamine and chondroitin can provide support due to improvements in vascular integrity. These compounds are incorporated into glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) on the blood vessel surface where they protect the endothelial cells from damage and promote repair.
- SULPHUR CONTAINING - Like glucosamine, chondroitin sulphate is a rich source of sulphur. The benefits noted may be partly due to the importance of sulphur in joint tissue. By serving as a source of inorganic sulphur, compounds such as chondroitin may be compensating for a sub-optimal or marginal intake of sulphur containing amino acids (SAA).
Vitamin C plays an important role in joint integrity due to its requirement in collagen production. Magnesium ascorbate is a buffered form of vitamin C.
VIRIDIAN GREEN FOOD BLEND (Wheat grass, bilberry fruit, barley grass, alfalfa)
Provides a potent mix of organic superfoods known for their abundance of synergistic nutrients including; trace minerals, antioxidants, enzymes, and other useful phytonutrients. This formula acts as a natural excipient providing additional nutritional value and aiding the absorption and delivery of the product.
In the capsulated/powdered form (free from excipients), the improved uptake allows for a lower dose of 300mg of glucosamine/chondroitin to be taken, one to three times daily (or as required). For obese individuals up to 20mg of glucosamine per kg of body weight is suggested. Up to 2000mg /day of glucosamine have been used in studies.
Osteoarthritis - repair and healing resulting in relief of pain and inflammation, disorders of tendons, ligaments, and cartilage. Chondroitin has shown some benefit in the following conditions; kidney stone formation, snoring, atherosclerosis, hypercholesterolemia, and other vascular disorders.
Manufactured glucosamine is synthetically derived from shellfish. Those with known chronic allergies should consult their physician. At the amount most frequently taken by adults-500 mg three times per day of glucosamine sulphate-adverse effects have been limited to mild reversible gastrointestinal side effects.
Research has raised the possibility that glucosamine could contribute to insulin resistance. This effect might theoretically result from the ability of glucosamine to interfere with an enzyme needed to regulate blood sugar levels. However, available evidence does not suggest that taking glucosamine supplements will trigger or aggravate insulin resistance or high blood sugar. Those with peptic ulcers and individuals taking diuretic drugs may be more likely to experience gastrointestinal side effects with glucosamine or chondroitin.
Use in conjunction with
- Osteoarthritis - multi-phytonutrient complex, flax seed oil, boswellia, green food blend / malic acid (to reduce systemic acidity). Dietary - increase water intake, reduce animal fats, and increase plant foods. Regular exercise and flexibility movements. Achieving appropriate body mass index (BMI) will reduce the risk of OA.
- Michael Murray. 1996. The Encyclopaedia of Nutritional Supplements. P. 44-53
- Russell AI, McCarty MF. Glucosamine in osteoarthritis. Lancet 1999;354:1641; discussion 1641-2 [letters].
- Reginster JY et al. Long-term effects of glucosamine sulphate on osteoarthritis progression: a randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Lancet 2001 Jan 27;357(9252):251-6
- Largo R, Alvarez-Soria MA, Diez-Ortego I, Calvo E, Sanchez-Pernaute O, Egido J, Herrero-Beaumont G. Glucosamine inhibits IL-1beta-induced NFkappaB activation in human osteoarthritic chondrocytes. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2003 Apr;11(4):290-8
- Braham R, Dawson B, Goodman C. The effect of glucosamine supplementation on people experiencing regular knee pain. Br J Sports Med 2003 Feb;37(1):45-9; discussion 49
- Moss M, Kruger GO, Reynolds DC. The effect of chondroitin sulfate on bone healing. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1965;20:795-801.
- Rovetta G. Galactosaminoglycuronoglycan sulfate (Matrix) in therapy of tibiofibular osteoarthritis of the knee. Drugs Exptl Clin Res 1991;17:53-7.
- Bourgeois P, Chales G, Dehais J, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of chondroitin sulfate 1200 mg/day vs chondroitin sulfate 3 x 400 mg/day vs placebo. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 1998;6(Supplement A):25-30.
- Verbruggen G, Goemaere S, Veys EM. Chondroitin sulfate: S/DMOAD (structure/disease modifying anti-osteoarthritis drug) in the treatment of finder joint OA. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 1998;6(Supplement A):37-8.
- Bucsi L, Poór G. Efficacy and tolerability of oral chondroitin sulfate as a symptomatic slow-acting drug for osteoarthritis (SYSADOA) in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 1998;6(Supplement A):31-6.
- F. Cordoba and M. E. Nimni. Chondroitin sulfate and other sulfate containing chondroprotective agents may exhibit their effects by overcoming a deficiency of sulfur amino acids. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
- Volume 11, Issue 3 , March 2003 , Pages 228-230
© Cheryl Thallon at Viridian