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About sugar in jams…

It’s plum harvest time here in Southern California, a little earlier this year due to the recent heat. Today I’m looking forward to putting up a juicy batch of plums. As OrganicFoodee readers know, I’m not a fan of refined sugar at all, and yet, I do insist on using traditional recipes that contain sugar when I make jam. This is why…

Sugar is a vital ingredient in jams. It’s the combination of sugar, fruit pectin and the natural acid of fruit juice that makes jams gel. And it’s the sugar in jam that stops bacteria growing, keeping it safe to eat for a very long time, and being the original reason that jam was invented – to make summer and autumn fruit last all year round before the invention of the freezer.

Lower-sugar jams can be made using an alternative thickener or gel substitute. These include vegetable gum products, gelatine, liquid pectin, or agar flakes. However, the consistency of the jam will be very soft and runny, and the texture isn’t satisfying. Using a lower-sugar recipe mean the sugar can be reduced by up to 1/3, so although lower-sugar jams are lower in sugar, they are by no means sugar-free, and should still be eaten in moderation.

Not only are lower-sugar jams inferior in consistency, they also do not keep for long and must be refrigerated. It’s the sugar in jams that allows the fruit to keep away bacteria and microorganisms that would otherwise spoil them. Also, gelatin is not stable in the freezer, so lower-sugar jams should always be refrigerated and eaten within 4 weeks, but never frozen.

The best methods for preserving fruit without added sugar avoid the whole jam area. There are many traditional zero-added-sugar recipes. These include dried fruit, fruit leathers, and simply pureeing and freezing fruit.

Drying fruit is easy to do outside if you’re in relatively dry and sunny climate zone, like Southern California. If not, don’t despair, just get a dehydrator.

Fruit leathers are wonderfully versatile and healthy, and can be made with the addition of spices, ground nuts and seeds. They’re made using a dehydrators like my Excalibur. Simply puree the fruit and spread the paste with a spatula onto non-porous silicon sheets, then dry overnight.

When freezing fruit purees, first wash the fruit, and freeze it in small batches with as little air as possible in the containers. Vacuum sealed packages are best, as it’s the air that contains the microorganisms that will eventually make the fruit spoil, but even pureed fruit frozen in regular containers will last for up to a year in the freezer. Also, be aware that it will discolor unless a little lemon juice is added, but the discoloring will not effect the flavor.

GM toxin found in human blood

by Dinesh C. Sharma

Fresh doubts have arisen about the safety of genetically modified crops, with a new study reporting presence of Bt toxin, used widely in GM crops, in human blood for the first time.

Genetically modified crops include genes extracted from bacteria to make them resistant to pest attacks.

These genes make crops toxic to pests but are claimed to pose no danger to the environment and human health. Genetically modified brinjal, whose commercial release was stopped a year ago, has a toxin derived from a soil bacterium called Bacillus thuringiensis ( Bt).

Till now, scientists and multinational corporations promoting GM crops have maintained that Bt toxin poses no danger to human health as the protein breaks down in the human gut. But the presence of this toxin in human blood shows that this does not happen.

Scientists from the University of Sherbrooke, Canada, have detected the insecticidal protein, Cry1Ab, circulating in the blood of pregnant as well as non-pregnant women.

They have also detected the toxin in fetal blood, implying it could pass on to the next generation. The research paper has been peer-reviewed and accepted for publication in the journal Reproductive Toxicology. The study covered 30 pregnant women and 39 women who had come for tubectomy at the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Sherbrooke (CHUS) in Quebec.

None of them had worked or lived with a spouse working in contact with pesticides.

They were all consuming typical Canadian diet that included GM foods such as soybeans, corn and potatoes. Blood samples were taken before delivery for pregnant women and at tubal ligation for non-pregnant women. Umbilical cord blood sampling was done after birth.

Cry1Ab toxin was detected in 93 per cent and 80 per cent of maternal and fetal blood samples, respectively and in 69 per cent of tested blood samples from non-pregnant women. Earlier studies had found trace amounts of the Cry1Ab toxin in gastrointestinal contents of livestock fed on GM corn. This gave rise to fears that the toxins may not be effectively eliminated in humans and there may be a high risk of exposure through consumption of contaminated meat.

“Generated data will help regulatory agencies responsible for the protection of human health to make better decisions”, noted researchers Aziz Aris and Samuel Leblanc.

Given the potential toxicity of these environmental pollutants and the fragility of the foetus, more studies are needed, particularly those using the placental transfer approach, they added Experts have warned of serious implications for India. Cottonseed oil is made from seeds of genetically modified cotton and thus Bt toxin may have already entered the food chain in India.

“Indian regulators should be immediately called for detailed toxicological studies to know the extent of contamination of the human blood with Bt toxins coming from cottonseed oil, and also ascertain its long term health impacts,” said Devinder Sharma, an anti-GM activist.

Published in India Today, New Delhi, May 11, 2011

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